BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuPulmonary actinomycosisActinomycosis - pulmonary; Actinomycosis - thoracicPulmonary actinomycosis is a rare lung infection caused by bacteria. Causes Pulmonary actinomycosis is caused by certain bacteria normally found in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. The bacteria often do not cause harm. But poor dental hygiene and tooth abscess can increase your risk for lung infections caused by these bacteria.Dental hygieneTooth decay and gum disease are caused by plaque, a sticky combination of bacteria and food. Plaque begins to build up on teeth within a few minutes...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Tooth abscessA tooth abscess is a pocket of pus caused by a bacterial infection.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article People with the following health problems also have a higher chance of developing the infection:Alcohol use Alcohol useAlcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may also need more and more alcohol to f...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Scars on the lungs (bronchiectasis) BronchiectasisBronchiectasis is a disease in which the large airways in the lungs are damaged. This causes the airways to become permanently wider. Bronchiectasis...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article COPDCOPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD makes it hard to breathe. There are two main forms of COPD:Chroni...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article The disease is rare in the United States. It may occur at any age, but is most common in people 30 to 60 years old. Men get this infection more often than women. Symptoms The infection often comes on slowly. It may be weeks or months before diagnosis is confirmed.Symptoms may include any of the following:Chest pain when taking a deep breath Cough with phlegm (sputum) Fever Shortness of breath Unintentional weight loss Lethargy LethargyFatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Night sweats (uncommon) Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your medical history and symptoms. Tests that may be done include:Bronchoscopy with culture BronchoscopyBronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. It may also be used during the treatment of some lung conditions.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Complete blood count (CBC) Complete blood countA complete blood count (CBC) test measures the following:The number of red blood cells (RBC count)The number of white blood cells (WBC count)The tota...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chest x-ray Chest x-rayA chest x-ray is an x-ray of the chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chest CT scan Chest CT scanA chest CT (computed tomography) scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the chest and upper abdomen....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Lung biopsy Lung biopsyAn open lung biopsy is surgery to remove a small piece of tissue from the lung. The sample is then examined for cancer, infection, or lung disease....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Modified AFB smear of sputum AFB smear of sputumSputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Sputum culture Sputum cultureRoutine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when y...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Tissue and sputum Gram stain Sputum Gram stainA sputum Gram stain is a laboratory test used to detect bacteria in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from your air passages whe...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Thoracentesis with culture ThoracentesisThoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest....Read Article Now Book Mark Article Tissue culture Treatment The goal of treatment is to cure the infection. It may take a long time to get better. To be cured, you may need to receive the antibiotic penicillin through a vein (intravenously) for 2 to 6 weeks. Then you need to take penicillin by mouth for a long period. Some people need up to 18 months of antibiotic treatment.If you cannot take penicillin, your provider will prescribe other antibiotics.Surgery may be needed to drain fluid from the lungs and control the infection. Outlook (Prognosis) Most people get better after treatment with antibiotics. Possible Complications Complications may include:Brain abscess Brain abscessA brain abscess is a collection of pus, immune cells, and other material in the brain, caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Destruction of parts of the lungs COPD COPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD makes it hard to breathe. There are two main forms of COPD:Chroni...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Meningitis MeningitisMeningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Osteomyelitis (bone infection)OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis is a bone infection. It is mainly caused by bacteria or other germs.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if:You have symptoms of pulmonary actinomycosis Your symptoms get worse or do not improve with treatment You develop new symptoms You have a fever of 101°F (38.3°C) or higher Prevention Good dental hygiene may help reduce your risk for actinomycosis.Open ReferencesReferencesBrook I. Actinomycosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 313.Russo TA. Agents of actinomycosis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 254.AllVideoImagesTogRespiratory system - illustration Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.Respiratory systemillustrationGram stain of tissue biopsy - illustration The gram stain procedure is a method of staining microorganisms on a slide using crystal violet to be viewed later under a microscope. Gram stain of tissue biopsyillustrationRespiratory system - illustration Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.Respiratory systemillustrationGram stain of tissue biopsy - illustration The gram stain procedure is a method of staining microorganisms on a slide using crystal violet to be viewed later under a microscope. Gram stain of tissue biopsyillustrationRelated Information Dental care - adult(Special Topic)Tooth abscess(Condition)Pleural effusion(Condition)Brain abscess(Condition)Meningitis(Condition)Osteomyelitis(Condition)Empyema(Condition)Periodontal Disease(In-Depth) Review Date: 3/4/2020 Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.