BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuMembranous nephropathyMembranous glomerulonephritis; Membranous GN; Extramembranous glomerulonephritis; Glomerulonephritis - membranous; MGNMembranous nephropathy is a kidney disorder that leads to changes and inflammation of the structures inside the kidney that help filter wastes and fluids. The inflammation may lead to problems with kidney function. Causes Membranous nephropathy is caused by the thickening of a part of the glomerular basement membrane. The glomerular basement membrane is a part of the kidneys that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. The exact reason for this thickening is not known.The thickened glomerular membrane does not work normally. As a result, large amounts of protein are lost in the urine.This condition is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome. This is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein level, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. Membranous nephropathy may be a primary kidney disease, or it may be associated with other conditions.Nephrotic syndromeNephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels in the blood, high cholesterol levels, high tri...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article The following increase your risk for this condition:Cancers, especially lung and colon cancer Exposure to toxins, including gold and mercury MercuryThis article discusses poisoning from mercury. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Infections, including hepatitis B, malaria, syphilis, and endocarditis Hepatitis BHepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article MalariaMalaria is a parasitic disease that involves high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like symptoms, and anemia.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Medicines, including penicillamine, trimethadione, and skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disordersSystemic lupus erythematosusSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. In this disease, the immune system of the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It c...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article The disorder occurs at any age, but is more common after age 40. Symptoms Symptoms often begin slowly over time, and may include:Edema (swelling) in any area of the body EdemaSwelling is the enlargement of organs, skin, or other body parts. It is caused by a buildup of fluid in the tissues. The extra fluid can lead to a ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Fatigue Foamy appearance of urine (due to large amounts of protein) Poor appetite Poor appetiteA decreased appetite is when your desire to eat is reduced. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Urination, excessive at night Urination, excessive at nightNormally, the amount of urine your body produces decreases at night. This allows most people to sleep 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Some p...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Weight gainWeight gainUnintentional weight gain is when you gain weight without trying to do so and you are not eating or drinking more.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests A physical exam may show swelling (edema).A urinalysis may reveal a large amount of protein in the urine. There may also be some blood in the urine. The glomerular filtration rate (the "speed" at which the kidneys cleanse the blood) is often nearly normal.UrinalysisUrinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure various compounds th...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Protein in the urineThe urine protein dipstick test measures the presence of all proteins, including albumin, in a urine sample. Albumin and protein can also be measured...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood in the urineBlood in your urine is called hematuria. The amount may be very small and only detected with urine tests or under a microscope. In other cases, the...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Other tests may be done to see how well the kidneys are working and how the body is adapting to the kidney problem. These include:Albumin - blood and urine AlbuminAlbumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin c...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Blood urea nitrogenBUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. A test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Creatinine - blood Creatinine - bloodThe creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine can ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Creatinine clearance Creatinine clearanceThe creatinine clearance test helps provide information about how well the kidneys are working. The test compares the creatinine level in urine with...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Lipid panel Protein - blood and urineA kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis.Kidney biopsyA kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue for examination.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy:Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double-strand DNA, if the antinuclear antibodies test is positive Blood tests to check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin testCryoglobulin testCryoglobulins are antibodies that become solid or gel-like at low temperatures in the laboratory. This article describes the blood test used to chec...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Treatment The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.Controlling blood pressure is the most important way to delay kidney damage. The goal is to keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mm Hg.High blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels should be treated to reduce the risk for atherosclerosis. However, a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet is often not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy.Medicines used to treat membranous nephropathy include:Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to lower blood pressure Corticosteroids and other medicines that suppress the immune system Medicines (most often statins) to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels Water pills (diuretics) to reduce swelling Blood thinners to reduce the risk for blood clots in the lungs and legsLow-protein diets may be helpful. A moderate-protein diet (1 gram [gm] of protein per kilogram [kg] of body weight per day) may be suggested.Vitamin D may need to be replaced if nephrotic syndrome is long-term (chronic) and does not respond to therapy.Vitamin DVitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue and liver.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article ChronicChronic refers to something that continues over an extended period of time. A chronic condition is usually long-lasting and does not easily or quick...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article This disease increases the risk for blood clots in the lungs and legs. Blood thinners may be prescribed to prevent these complications. Outlook (Prognosis) The outlook varies, depending on the amount of protein loss. There may be symptom-free periods and occasional flare-ups. Sometimes, the condition goes away, with or without therapy.Most people with this disease will have kidney damage and some people will develop end-stage renal disease.Kidney damageInjury to the kidney and ureter is damage to the organs of the upper urinary tract.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article End-stage renal diseaseEnd-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term (chronic) kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Possible Complications Complications that may result from this disease include:Chronic renal failure Chronic renal failureChronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Deep venous thrombosis Deep venous thrombosisDeep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly affects the large ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article End-stage renal disease End-stage renal diseaseEnd-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term (chronic) kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Nephrotic syndrome Nephrotic syndromeNephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels in the blood, high cholesterol levels, high tri...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary embolismA pulmonary embolus is a blockage of an artery in the lungs. The most common cause of the blockage is a blood clot.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Renal vein thrombosisRenal vein thrombosisRenal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider if:You have symptoms of membranous nephropathy Your symptoms get worse or don't go away You develop new symptoms You have decreased urine outputDecreased urine outputDecreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 mL of urine in 24 hours (a little over 2 cups)....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Prevention Quickly treating disorders and avoiding substances that can cause membranous nephropathy may reduce your risk.Open ReferencesReferencesRadhakrishnan J, Appel GB. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 113.Saha MK, Pendergraft WF, Jennette JC, Falk RJ. Primary glomerular disease. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Luyckx VA, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 31.Salant DJ, Cattran DC. Membranous nephropathy. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 20.AllVideoImagesTogKidney anatomy - illustration The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production.Kidney anatomyillustrationKidney anatomy - illustration The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production.Kidney anatomyillustrationRelated Information Nephrotic syndrome(Condition)Asymptomatic(Special Topic)Urine protein dipstick test(Medical Test)Urinary casts(Medical Test)Systemic(Special Topic)Hepatitis B(Condition)Malaria(Condition)Non-Hodgkin lymphoma(Condition)Systemic lupus erythematosus(Condition)Mercury poisoning(Poison)Hepatitis(In-Depth)Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(In-Depth)Systemic lupus erythematosus(In-Depth) Review Date: 7/16/2019 Reviewed By: Walead Latif, MD, Nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical School, Newark, NJ. 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