BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuProthrombin deficiencyHypoprothrombinemia; Factor II deficiency; DysprothrombinemiaProthrombin deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein in the blood called prothrombin. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Prothrombin is also known as factor II (factor two). Causes When you bleed, a series of reactions take place in the body that helps blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or clotting, factors. You may have a higher chance of excess bleeding if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should.Prothrombin, or factor II, is one such coagulation factor. Prothrombin deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must have the gene to pass the disorder on to their children. A family history of a bleeding disorder can be a risk factor.Prothrombin deficiency can also be due to another condition or use of certain medicines. This is called acquired prothrombin deficiency. It can be caused by:Lack of vitamin K (some babies are born with vitamin K deficiency) Vitamin KVitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. Your body stores vitamin K in the liver and other body tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, and bone....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Severe liver disease Liver diseaseThe term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver from working or prevent it from functioning well. Abdominal pain, yellowing ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Use of medicines that prevent clotting (anticoagulants such as warfarin) Symptoms Symptoms may include any of the following:Abnormal bleeding after childbirth Heavy menstrual bleeding Bleeding after surgery Bleeding after trauma Bruising easily BruisingBleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny red dots (called petechiae). Blood also can collect under the tissue in la...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Nosebleeds that do not stop easily Umbilical cord bleeding after birth Exams and Tests Tests that may be done include:Factor II assay Factor II assayThe factor II assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor II. Factor II is also known as prothrombin. This is one of the proteins in th...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Partial thromboplastin time Partial thromboplastin timePartial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you have a bleeding problem...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Prothrombin time (PT) PTProthrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. A related blood test is ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Mixing study (a special PTT test to confirm prothrombin deficiency) Treatment Bleeding can be controlled by getting intravenous (IV) infusions of plasma or concentrates of clotting factors. If you lack vitamin K, you can take this vitamin by mouth, through injections under the skin, or through a vein (intravenously). If you have this bleeding disorder, be sure to:Tell your health care providers before you have any kind of procedure, including surgery and dental work. Tell your family members because they may have the same disorder but do not know it yet. Support Groups More information and support for people with Factor VII deficiency and their families can be found at:National Hemophilia Foundation -- www.hemophilia.org/community-resources NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center -- rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/2926/prothrombin-deficiency Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is good with proper treatment.Inherited prothrombin deficiency is a lifelong condition.The outlook for acquired prothrombin deficiency depends on the cause. If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver disease can be treated. Taking vitamin K supplements will treat vitamin K deficiency. Possible Complications Severe bleeding in the organs can occur. When to Contact a Medical Professional Get emergency treatment right away if you have unexplained or long-term blood loss, or if you cannot control the bleeding. Prevention There is no known prevention for inherited prothrombin deficiency. When a lack of vitamin K is the cause, using vitamin K can help.Open ReferencesReferencesGailani D, Wheeler AP, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 137.Hall JE, Hall ME. Hemostasis and blood coagulation. In: Hall JE, Hall ME, eds. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 37.Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 165.AllVideoImagesTogBlood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets immediately begin to adhere to the cut edges of the vessel and release chemicals to attract even more platelets. A platelet plug is formed, and the external bleeding stops. Next, small molecules, called clotting factors, cause strands of blood-borne materials, called fibrin, to stick together and seal the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals and the blood clot dissolves after a few days.Blood clot formationillustrationBlood clots - illustration Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates.Blood clotsillustrationBlood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets immediately begin to adhere to the cut edges of the vessel and release chemicals to attract even more platelets. A platelet plug is formed, and the external bleeding stops. Next, small molecules, called clotting factors, cause strands of blood-borne materials, called fibrin, to stick together and seal the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals and the blood clot dissolves after a few days.Blood clot formationillustrationBlood clots - illustration Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates.Blood clotsillustration Tests for Prothrombin deficiency Factor II (prothrombin) assayRelated Information Bleeding disorders(Condition)Vitamin K(Nutrition)Liver disease(Condition)Bile duct obstruction(Condition)Malabsorption(Condition)Vitamins and Phytonutrients(In-Depth) Review Date: 1/19/2021 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. 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