BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuCongenital protein C or S deficiencyProtein S deficiency; Protein C deficiencyCongenital protein C or S deficiency is a lack of proteins C or S in the fluid part of the blood. The proteins are natural substances that help prevent blood clots. Causes Congenital protein C or S deficiency is an inherited disorder. This means it is passed down through families. Congenital means it is present at birth.The disorder causes abnormal blood clotting.One in 300 people has one normal gene and one faulty gene for protein C deficiency.Protein S deficiency is much less common and occurs in about 1 in 20,000 people. Symptoms If you have this condition, you are more likely to develop blood clots. The symptoms are the same as for deep vein thrombosis, and include:Deep vein thrombosisDeep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly affects the large ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Pain or tenderness in the affected area Redness or swelling in the affected area SwellingSwelling is the enlargement of organs, skin, or other body parts. It is caused by a buildup of fluid in the tissues. The extra fluid can lead to a ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your medical history and symptoms.Laboratory tests will be done to check for proteins C and S. Treatment Blood-thinning drugs are used to treat and prevent blood clots. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is usually good with treatment, but symptoms may return, especially if blood-thinning agents are stopped. Possible Complications Complications may include:Childhood stroke StrokeA stroke occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack. " If blood flow is cut off for longer th...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article More than one pregnancy loss (recurrent miscarriage) Recurrent clots in the veins Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in a lung artery)Pulmonary embolismA pulmonary embolus is a blockage of an artery in the lungs. The most common cause of the blockage is a blood clot.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article In rare cases, using warfarin to thin the blood and prevent clots can cause brief increased clotting and severe skin wounds. People are at risk if they are not treated with the blood-thinning drug heparin before taking warfarin. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if you have symptoms of clotting in a vein (swelling and redness of the leg). Prevention If your provider diagnoses you with this disorder, you should be careful to prevent clots from forming. This can occur when the blood moves slowly in the veins, such as from prolonged bed rest during an illness, surgery, or hospital stay. It may also occur after long airplane or car trips.Open ReferencesReferencesAnderson JA, Hogg KE, Weitz JI. Hypercoagulable states. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 140.Patterson JW. The vasculopathic reaction pattern. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 9.AllVideoImagesTogBlood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets immediately begin to adhere to the cut edges of the vessel and release chemicals to attract even more platelets. A platelet plug is formed, and the external bleeding stops. Next, small molecules, called clotting factors, cause strands of blood-borne materials, called fibrin, to stick together and seal the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals and the blood clot dissolves after a few days.Blood clot formationillustrationBlood clots - illustration Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates.Blood clotsillustrationBlood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets immediately begin to adhere to the cut edges of the vessel and release chemicals to attract even more platelets. A platelet plug is formed, and the external bleeding stops. Next, small molecules, called clotting factors, cause strands of blood-borne materials, called fibrin, to stick together and seal the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals and the blood clot dissolves after a few days.Blood clot formationillustrationBlood clots - illustration Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates.Blood clotsillustration Tests for Congenital protein C or S deficiency Blood smearRelated Information Protein in diet(Nutrition)Blood clots(Condition)Pulmonary embolus(Condition)Stroke(Condition)Stroke(In-Depth) Review Date: 10/16/2020 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. 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