BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuMultiple myelomaPlasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multipleMultiple myeloma is a blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside most bones. It helps make blood cells. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing proteins called antibodies. With multiple myeloma, plasma cells grow out of control in the bone marrow and form tumors in the areas of solid bone. The growth of these bone tumors weakens the solid bones. It also makes it harder for the bone marrow to make healthy blood cells and platelets.AntibodiesAn antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include micr...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Causes The cause of multiple myeloma is unknown. Past treatment with radiation therapy increases the risk for this type of cancer. Multiple myeloma mainly affects older adults.CancerCancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Symptoms Multiple myeloma most commonly causes:Low red blood cell count (anemia), which can lead to fatigue and shortness of breath AnemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Low white blood cell count, which makes you more likely to get infections Low platelet count, which can lead to abnormal bleedingAs the cancer cells grow in the bone marrow, you may have bone pain, most often in the ribs or back.The cancer cells can weaken bones. As a result:You may develop broken bones (bone fractures) just from doing normal activities. If cancer grows in the spine bones, it can press on the nerves. This can lead to numbness or weakness of the arms or legs.NumbnessNumbness and tingling are abnormal sensations that can occur anywhere in your body, but they are often felt in your fingers, hands, feet, arms, or le...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. Blood tests can help diagnose this disease. These tests include:Albumin level Albumin levelAlbumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin c...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Calcium level Calcium levelThe calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blo...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Total protein level Total protein levelThe total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Kidney function Kidney functionKidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include:BUN (Blood urea nitrogen) Creatinin...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Complete blood count (CBC) Complete blood countA complete blood count (CBC) test measures the following:The number of red blood cells (RBC count)The number of white blood cells (WBC count)The tota...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Immunofixation ImmunofixationThe immunofixation blood test is used to identify proteins called immunoglobulins in blood. Too much of the same immunoglobulin is usually due to di...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Quantitative nephelometry Quantitative nephelometryQuantitative nephelometry is a lab test to quickly and accurately measure levels of certain proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglob...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Serum protein electrophoresis Bone x-rays, CT scans, or MRI may show fractures or hollowed out areas of bone. If your provider suspects this type of cancer, a bone marrow biopsy will be performed.Bone marrow biopsyA bone marrow biopsy is the removal of marrow from inside bone. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is foun...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bone density testing may show bone loss.If tests show that you have multiple myeloma, more tests will be done to see how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Staging helps guide treatment and follow-up.StagingCancer staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in your body and where it is located in your body. Staging helps determine where the original...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Treatment People who have mild disease or in whom the diagnosis is not certain are usually closely monitored. Some people have a form of multiple myeloma that grows slowly (smoldering myeloma), which takes years to cause symptoms.Various types of medicines are used to treat multiple myeloma. They are most often given to prevent complications such as bone fractures and kidney damage.Radiation therapy may be used to relieve bone pain or to shrink a tumor that is pushing on the spinal cord.Radiation therapyRadiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article A bone marrow transplant may be recommended:Bone marrow transplantA bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fat...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article An autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation is performed using a person's own stem cells. An allogeneic transplant uses someone else's stem cells. This treatment has serious risks, but may offer the chance of a cure. You and your provider may need to manage other concerns during your treatment, including:Having chemotherapy at home Having chemotherapy at homeYou or your child will be going home from the hospital soon. The health care provider has prescribed medicines or other treatments that you or your ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Managing your pets Managing your petsIf you have a weak immune system, having a pet can put you at risk for serious illness from diseases that can spread from animals to humans. Learn w...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Bleeding problems Bleeding problemsYour bone marrow makes cells called platelets. These cells keep you from bleeding too much by helping your blood clot. Chemotherapy, radiation, and...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Dry mouth Dry mouthSome cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Take good care of your mouth during your cancer treatment. Follow the measures outlined b...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Eating enough calories Eating enough caloriesIf you are sick or undergoing cancer treatment, you may not feel like eating. But it is important to get enough protein and calories so you do not l...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Safe eating during cancer treatment Safe eatingWhen you have cancer, you need good nutrition to help keep your body strong. To do this, you need to be aware of the foods you eat and how you prepa...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.Cancer support groupThe following organizations are good resources for information on cancer:American Cancer Society -- www. cancer. orgAmerican Childhood Cancer Organiz...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Outlook (Prognosis) Outlook depends on the person's age and the stage of disease. In some cases, the disease progresses very rapidly. In other cases, it takes years for symptoms to appear.In general, multiple myeloma is treatable, but only in rare cases can it be cured. Possible Complications Kidney failure is a frequent complication. Others may include:Kidney failureAcute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) loss of your kidneys' ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and electrolytes in your b...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bone fractures High level of calcium in the blood, which can be very dangerous Increased chances for infection, especially in the lungs Anemia When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if you have multiple myeloma and you develop an infection, or numbness, loss of movement, or loss of sensation.Open ReferencesReferencesNational Cancer Institute website. PDQ plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma) treatment. www.cancer.gov/types/myeloma/hp/myeloma-treatment-pdq. Updated May 14, 2021. Accessed June 3, 2021.National Comprehensive Cancer Network website. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: multiple myeloma. Version 7.2021 - April 26, 2021. www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/myeloma.pdf. Accessed June 3, 2021.Rajkumar SV, Dispenzieri A. Multiple myeloma and related disorders. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Kastan MB, Doroshow JH, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 101.AllVideoImagesTogCryoglobulinemia of the fingers - illustration Cryoglobulinemia is caused by an abnormal protein that is occasionally found in the blood of people with multiple myeloma, leukemia, and certain forms of pneumonia. It causes blood to gel at low temperatures. In this picture, cryoglobulinemia has reduced blood flow in the fingers so much the fingers have turned dark. The black areas are gangrene resulting from lack of blood flow.Cryoglobulinemia of the fingersillustrationImmune system structures - illustration The immune system protects the body from potentially harmful substances. The inflammatory response (inflammation) is part of innate immunity. It occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat or any other cause.Immune system structuresillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. AntibodiesillustrationCryoglobulinemia of the fingers - illustration Cryoglobulinemia is caused by an abnormal protein that is occasionally found in the blood of people with multiple myeloma, leukemia, and certain forms of pneumonia. It causes blood to gel at low temperatures. In this picture, cryoglobulinemia has reduced blood flow in the fingers so much the fingers have turned dark. The black areas are gangrene resulting from lack of blood flow.Cryoglobulinemia of the fingersillustrationImmune system structures - illustration The immune system protects the body from potentially harmful substances. The inflammatory response (inflammation) is part of innate immunity. It occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat or any other cause.Immune system structuresillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. Antibodiesillustration Tests for Multiple myeloma Urine protein electrophoresis testImmunoelectrophoresis - bloodRelated Information Cancer(Condition)Platelet count(Medical Test)Anemia(Condition)Numbness and tingling(Symptoms)Muscle function loss(Symptoms)Acute kidney failure(Condition)Community-acquired pneumonia in adults(Condition)Spinal cord trauma(Condition)Bone marrow transplant(Surgery)Bone marrow transplant - discharge(Discharge)Anemia(In-Depth)Pneumonia(In-Depth) Review Date: 2/6/2020 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and update on 06/03/2021 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. 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