BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuBrucellosisCyprus fever; Undulant fever; Gibraltar fever; Malta fever; Mediterranean feverBrucellosis is a bacterial infection that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. Causes Brucella can infect cattle, goats, camels, dogs, and pigs. The bacteria can spread to humans by:Coming in contact with infected meat or the placenta of infected animals Eating unpasteurized cheese Drinking unpasteurized milkBrucellosis is rare in the United States. About 100 to 200 cases occur each year. Most cases are caused by the Brucella melitensis bacteria.People working in jobs where they often come in contact with animals or meat are at higher risk. This includes slaughterhouse workers, farmers, and veterinarians.Brucella is found in many countries worldwide including:Egypt Iraq Iran Jordan Saudi Arabia Chad Greece Mexico Symptoms Acute brucellosis may begin with mild flu-like symptoms, or symptoms such as:AcuteAcute means sudden or severe. Acute symptoms appear, change, or worsen rapidly. It is the opposite of chronic.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Flu-likeThe flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It spreads easily. This article discusses influenza types A and B. Another type of the flu ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Abdominal pain Back pain Fever and chills Excessive sweating Fatigue Headache Joint and muscle pain Loss of appetite Swollen glands Weakness Weight lossHigh fever spikes often occur every afternoon. The name undulant fever is often used to describe this disease because the fever rises and falls in waves.The illness may be chronic and last for years.ChronicChronic refers to something that continues over an extended period of time. A chronic condition is usually long-lasting and does not easily or quick...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests The health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms. You'll also be asked if you've been in contact with animals or possibly eaten dairy products that were not pasteurized. Tests that may be done include:Blood test for brucellosis Blood test for brucellosisSerology for brucellosis is a blood test to look for the presence of antibodies against brucella. These are the bacteria that cause the disease bruc...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood culture Blood cultureA blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bone marrow culture Bone marrow cultureBone marrow culture is an examination of the soft, fatty tissue found inside certain bones. The bone marrow tissue produces blood cells. This test ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Urine culture Urine cultureA urine culture is a lab test to check for bacteria or other germs in a urine sample. It can be used to check for a urinary tract infection in adults...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article CSF (spinal fluid) culture CSF (spinal fluid) cultureA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spi...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Biopsy and culture of specimen from affected organ Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat the infection and prevent it from coming back. These include:Doxycycline Streptomycin Gentamicin RifampinOften, you need to take the drugs for 6 weeks. If there are complications from brucellosis, you will likely need to take the drugs for a longer period. Outlook (Prognosis) Symptoms may come and go for years. Also, the illness can come back after a long period of not having symptoms. Possible Complications Health problems that may result from brucellosis include:Bone and joint sores (lesions) Encephalitis (swelling or inflammation of the brain) EncephalitisEncephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Infective endocarditis (inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves) Infective endocarditisEndocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium). It is caused by a bacterial or, rarely a fun...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Meningitis (infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)MeningitisMeningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your provider for an appointment if:You develop symptoms of brucellosis Your symptoms get worse or do not improve with treatment You develop new symptoms Prevention Drinking and eating only pasteurized dairy products, such as milk and cheeses, is the most important way to reduce the risk for brucellosis. People who handle meat should wear protective eyewear and clothing and protect skin breaks from infection.Skin breaksA cut is a break or opening in the skin. It is also called a laceration. A cut may be deep, smooth, or jagged. It may be near the surface of the s...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Detecting infected animals controls the infection at its source. Vaccination is available for cattle, but not humans.Open ReferencesReferencesGotuzzo E, Ryan ET. Brucellosis. In: Ryan ET, Hill DR, Solomon T, Aronson NE, Endy TP, eds. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 75.Gul HC, Erdem H. Brucellosis (Brucella species). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 226.AllVideoImagesTogBrucellosis - illustration Brucellosis is a disease that starts with flu-like symptoms. Complications may include arthritis, heart disease and brain damage.BrucellosisillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. AntibodiesillustrationBrucellosis - illustration Brucellosis is a disease that starts with flu-like symptoms. Complications may include arthritis, heart disease and brain damage.BrucellosisillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. Antibodiesillustration Tests for Brucellosis Serology for brucellosisRelated Information Chronic(Special Topic)Acute(Special Topic)Flu(Condition)Fever(Symptoms)Encephalitis(Condition)Meningitis(Condition)Colds and the flu(In-Depth)Viral encephalitis (In-Depth) Review Date: 9/1/2021 Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.