BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuPeritonitis - spontaneous bacterialSpontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitisThe peritoneum is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the organs. Peritonitis is present when this tissue becomes inflamed or infected.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is present when this tissue becomes infected and there is no clear cause. Causes SBP is most often caused by infection in fluid that collects in the peritoneal cavity (ascites). The fluid buildup often occurs with advanced liver or kidney disease.AscitesAscites is the build-up of fluid in the space between the lining of the abdomen and abdominal organs.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Risk factors for liver disease include:Very heavy alcohol use Chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C Hepatitis BHepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Hepatitis CHepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. Other types of viral hepatitis include:Hepatitis AHepatitis BHepat...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Other diseases that lead to cirrhosisSBP also occurs in people who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes. These include infection from other organs or leakage of enzymes or other toxins into the abdomen.Peritonitis may have other causesThe peritoneum is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs. Peritonitis is present when this...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Symptoms Symptoms include:Abdominal pain and bloating Abdominal painAbdominal pain is pain that you feel anywhere between your chest and groin. This is often referred to as the stomach region or belly.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Abdominal tenderness TendernessAbdominal point tenderness is the pain you feel when pressure is placed over a certain part of the belly area (abdomen).ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Fever FeverFever is the temporary increase in the body's temperature in response to a disease or illness. A child has a fever when the temperature is at or abov...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Low urine outputLow urine outputDecreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 mL of urine in 24 hours (a little over 2 cups)....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Other symptoms include:Chills ChillsChills refers to feeling cold after being in a cold environment. The word can also refer to an episode of shivering along with paleness and feeling ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Joint pain Joint painJoint pain can affect one or more joints.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Nausea and vomitingNausea and vomitingNausea is feeling an urge to vomit. It is often called "being sick to your stomach. "Vomiting or throwing-up is forcing the contents of the stomach ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests Tests will be done to check for infection and other causes of abdominal pain:Blood culture Blood cultureA blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article White blood cell count in a sample of peritoneal fluid Chemical examination of peritoneal fluid Culture of peritoneal fluid Culture of peritoneal fluidPeritoneal fluid culture is a laboratory test performed on a sample of peritoneal fluid. It is done to detect bacteria or fungi that cause infection...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article CT scan or ultrasound of the abdomen Treatment Treatment depends on the cause of the SBP.SBPPeritonitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum. This is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of t...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Surgery may be needed if SBP is caused by a foreign object, such as a catheter used in peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysisDialysis treats end-stage kidney failure. It removes harmful substances from the blood when the kidneys cannot. This article focuses on peritoneal d...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Antibiotics to control infection. Fluids given through the veins. Fluids given through the veinsIntravenous means "within a vein. " Most often it refers to giving medicines or fluids through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. This allows th...Read Article Now Book Mark Article You will need to stay in the hospital so health care providers can rule out other causes such as a ruptured appendix and diverticulitis.DiverticulitisDiverticula are small, bulging sacs or pouches that form on the inner wall of the intestine. Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflame...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Outlook (Prognosis) In most cases, the infection can be treated. However, kidney or liver disease may limit recovery.Liver diseaseThe term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver from working or prevent it from functioning well. Abdominal pain, yellowing ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Possible Complications Complications may include:Loss of brain function occurs when the liver is unable to remove toxins from the blood. Loss of brain functionLoss of brain function occurs when the liver is unable to remove toxins from the blood. This is called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This problem ma...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Kidney problem caused by liver failure. Kidney problem caused by liver failureHepatorenal syndrome is a condition in which there is progressive kidney failure that occurs in a person with cirrhosis of the liver. It is a seriou...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Sepsis.SepsisSepsis is an illness in which the body has a severe, inflammatory response to bacteria or other germs.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if you have symptoms of peritonitis. This can be a medical emergency situation. Prevention Steps should be taken to prevent infection in people with peritoneal catheters.Continuous antibiotics may be used:To prevent peritonitis from coming back in people with liver failure To prevent peritonitis in people who have acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to other conditionsOpen ReferencesReferencesGarcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 144.Kuemmerle JF. Inflammatory and anatomic diseases of the intestine, peritoneum, mesentery, and omentum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 133.Sola E, Gines P. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 93.AllVideoImagesTogPeritoneal sample - illustration The peritoneum is the membrane lining the abdominal cavity.Peritoneal sampleillustrationPeritoneal sample - illustration The peritoneum is the membrane lining the abdominal cavity.Peritoneal sampleillustration Tests for Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial Peritoneal fluid cultureRelated Information Ascites(Condition)Cirrhosis(Condition)Abscess(Condition)Intestinal obstruction and Ileus(Condition)Hepatorenal syndrome(Condition)Loss of brain function - liver disease(Condition)Sepsis(Condition)Cirrhosis(In-Depth) Review Date: 4/2/2020 Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.