BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuCMV pneumoniaPneumonia - cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus pneumonia; Viral pneumoniaCytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a viral infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system. Causes CMV pneumonia is caused by a member of a group of herpes-type viruses. Infection with CMV is very common. Most people are exposed to CMV in their lifetime, but typically only those with weakened immune systems become ill from CMV infection.Serious CMV infections can occur in people with weakened immune systems as a result of:HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDSHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bone marrow transplant Bone marrow transplantA bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fat...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chemotherapy or other treatments that suppress the immune system ChemotherapyThe term chemotherapy is used to describe cancer-killing drugs. Chemotherapy may be used to:Cure the cancer Shrink the cancerPrevent the cancer from...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Organ transplant (especially lung transplant)In people who have had organ and bone marrow transplants, the risk for infection is greatest 5 to 13 weeks after the transplant. Symptoms In otherwise healthy people, CMV usually produces no symptoms, or it produces a temporary mononucleosis-type illness. However, those with a weakened immune system can develop serious symptoms. Symptoms may include:Cough Fatigue FatigueFatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Fever General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise) MalaiseMalaise is a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or lack of well-being.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Loss of appetite Muscle aches or joint pains Shortness of breath Sweating, excessive (night sweats) Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam. In addition, the following tests may be done: Venous and/or arterial blood gas Arterial blood gasBlood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the acidity (pH) of your blood.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Oximetry Blood culture Blood cultureA blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood tests to detect and measure substances specific to CMV infection Bronchoscopy (may include biopsy) BronchoscopyBronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. It may also be used during the treatment of some lung conditions.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article BiopsyA biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Chest x-ray Chest x-rayA chest x-ray is an x-ray of the chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article CT scan of chest Urine culture (clean catch) Urine culture (clean catch)A urine culture is a lab test to check for bacteria or other germs in a urine sample. It can be used to check for a urinary tract infection in adults...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Sputum gram stain and culture Treatment The goal of treatment is to use antiviral drugs to stop the virus from copying itself in the body. Some people with CMV pneumonia need IV (intravenous) medicines. Some people may need oxygen therapy and breathing support with a ventilator to maintain oxygen until the infection is brought under control. Outlook (Prognosis) Antiviral drugs stop the virus from copying itself, but do not destroy it. The CMV suppresses the immune system, and may increase your risk for other infections. Low oxygen level in the blood of people with CMV pneumonia often predicts death, especially in those who need to be placed on a breathing machine. Possible Complications Complications of CMV infection in people with HIV/AIDS include spread of disease to other parts of the body, such as the esophagus, intestine, or eye.EyeCytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a viral infection of the retina of the eye resulting in inflammation.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Complications of CMV pneumonia include:Kidney impairment (from drugs used to treat the condition) Low white blood cell count (from drugs used to treat the condition) White blood cell countA WBC count is a blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. WBCs are also called leukocytes. They help fight infecti...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Overwhelming infection that doesn't respond to treatment Resistance of CMV to standard treatment When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your provider if you have symptoms of CMV pneumonia. Prevention The following have been shown to help prevent CMV pneumonia in certain people:Using organ transplant donors who don't have CMV Using CMV-negative blood products for transfusion Using CMV-immune globulin in certain peoplePreventing HIV/AIDS avoids certain other diseases, including CMV, that can occur in people who have a weakened immune system.Open ReferencesReferencesBritt WJ. Cytomegalovirus. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 137.Crothers K, Worodria W, Huang L. Pulmonary complications of HIV infection. In: Broaddus VC, Ernst JD, King TE, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 123.Singh N, Haidar G, Limay AP. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 308.AllVideoImagesTogCMV pneumonia - illustration Cytomegalovirus is a large herpes-type virus commonly found in humans that can cause serious infections in people with impaired immunity. CMV pneumonia is treated with antiviral medications, which may stop the replication of the virus but will not destroy it.CMV pneumoniaillustrationCMV (cytomegalovirus) - illustration Cytomegalovirus is a large herpes-type virus commonly found in humans that can cause serious infections in people with impaired immunity. The infection may result in pneumonia, gastroenteritis, retinitis or encephalitis. Antiviral medicines may stop the replication of the virus, but will not destroy it.CMV (cytomegalovirus)illustrationCMV pneumonia - illustration Cytomegalovirus is a large herpes-type virus commonly found in humans that can cause serious infections in people with impaired immunity. CMV pneumonia is treated with antiviral medications, which may stop the replication of the virus but will not destroy it.CMV pneumoniaillustrationCMV (cytomegalovirus) - illustration Cytomegalovirus is a large herpes-type virus commonly found in humans that can cause serious infections in people with impaired immunity. The infection may result in pneumonia, gastroenteritis, retinitis or encephalitis. Antiviral medicines may stop the replication of the virus, but will not destroy it.CMV (cytomegalovirus)illustrationRelated Information Antibody(Special Topic)Immune response(Special Topic)HIV/AIDS(Condition)Bone marrow transplant(Surgery)Chemotherapy(Special Topic)Mononucleosis(Condition)CMV retinitis(Condition)Breathing difficulty(Symptoms)Community-acquired pneumonia in adults(Condition)WBC count(Medical Test)Pneumonia in adults - discharge(Discharge)Pneumonia(In-Depth) Review Date: 11/23/2021 Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.