BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuFrontotemporal dementiaSemantic dementia; Dementia - semantic; Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; Pick disease; 3R tauopathyFrontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a rare form of dementia that is similar to Alzheimer disease, except that it tends to affect only certain areas of the brain.DementiaDementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Alzheimer diseaseDementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. It affects memo...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Causes People with FTD have abnormal substances (called tangles, Pick bodies, and Pick cells, and tau proteins) inside nerve cells in the damaged areas of the brain.The exact cause of the abnormal substances is unknown. Many different abnormal genes have been found that can cause FTD. Some cases of FTD are passed down through families.FTD is rare. It can occur in people as young as 20. But it usually begins between ages 40 and 60. The average age at which it begins is 54. Symptoms The disease gets worse slowly. Tissues in parts of the brain shrink over time. Symptoms such as behavior changes, speech difficulty, and problems thinking occur slowly and get worse.Early personality changes can help doctors tell FTD apart from Alzheimer disease. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom of Alzheimer disease.)People with FTD tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings. The changes in behavior continue to get worse and are often one of the most disturbing symptoms of the disease. Some persons have more difficulty with decision-making, complex tasks, or language (trouble finding or understanding words or writing).General symptoms include:BEHAVIORAL CHANGES:Not able to keep a job Compulsive behaviors Impulsive or inappropriate behavior Inability to function or interact in social or personal situations Problems with personal hygiene Repetitive behavior Withdrawal from social interaction EMOTIONAL CHANGESAbrupt mood changes Decreased interest in daily living activities Failure to recognize changes in behavior Failure to show emotional warmth, concern, empathy, sympathy Inappropriate mood Not caring about events or environment LANGUAGE CHANGESCannot speak (mutism) Decreased ability to read or write Difficulty finding a word Difficulty speaking or understanding speech (aphasia) Repeating anything spoken to them (echolalia) Shrinking vocabulary Weak, uncoordinated speech sounds NERVOUS SYSTEM PROBLEMSIncreased muscle tone (rigidity) MuscleMuscle cramps are when a muscle gets tight (contracts) without you trying to tighten it, and it does not relax. Cramps may involve all or part of on...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Memory loss that gets worse Movement/coordination difficulties (apraxia) WeaknessWeaknessWeakness is reduced strength in one or more muscles.Read Article Now Book Mark Article OTHER PROBLEMSUrinary incontinenceUrinary incontinenceUrinary (or bladder) incontinence occurs when you are not able to keep urine from leaking out of your urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests The health care provider will ask about the medical history and symptoms.Tests may be ordered to help rule out other causes of dementia, including dementia due to metabolic causes. FTD is diagnosed based on symptoms and results of tests, including:Dementia due to metabolic causesDementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Dementia due to metabolic causes is a loss of brain function that can occur wit...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Assessment of the mind and behavior (neuropsychological assessment) Brain MRI MRIA head MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the brain and surrounding...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Electroencephalogram (EEG) ElectroencephalogramAn electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Examination of the brain and nervous system (neurological exam) Examination of the fluid around the central nervous system (cerebrospinal fluid) after a lumbar puncture Lumbar punctureCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is a test to look at the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. CSF acts as a cushion, protecting the b...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Head CT scan Head CT scanA head computed tomography (CT) scan uses many x-rays to create pictures of the head, including the skull, brain, eye sockets, and sinuses.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Tests of sensation, thinking and reasoning (cognitive function), and motor function Newer methods that test brain metabolism or protein deposits may better allow for more accurate diagnosis in the future Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of brainA brain biopsy is the only test that can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for FTD. Medicines may help manage mood swings.Sometimes, people with FTD take the same medicines used to treat other types of dementia.In some cases, stopping or changing medicines that worsen confusion or that are not needed can improve thinking and other mental functions. Medicines include:ConfusionConfusion is the inability to think as clearly or quickly as you normally do. You may feel disoriented and have difficulty paying attention, remembe...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Analgesics AnalgesicsOver-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers can help relieve pain or lower a fever. Over-the-counter means you can buy these medicines without a prescript...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Anticholinergics Central nervous system depressants Central nervous systemThe central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entir...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Cimetidine Lidocaine It is important to treat any disorders that can cause confusion. These include:Anemia AnemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Decreased oxygen (hypoxia) level HypoxiaA bluish color to the skin or mucous membrane is usually due to a lack of oxygen in the blood. The medical term is cyanosis.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Heart failure Heart failureHeart failure is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body efficiently. This causes symptom...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article High carbon dioxide level Infections Kidney failure Liver failure Nutritional disorders Thyroid disorders Mood disorders, such as depressionDepressionDepression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for shor...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Medicines may be needed to control aggressive, dangerous, or agitated behaviors.AgitatedAgitation is an unpleasant state of extreme arousal. An agitated person may feel stirred up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Behavior modification can help some people control unacceptable or dangerous behaviors. This consists of rewarding appropriate or positive behaviors and ignoring inappropriate behaviors (when it is safe to do so).Talk therapy (psychotherapy) does not always work. This is because it can cause further confusion or disorientation.Reality orientation, which reinforces environmental and other cues, may help reduce disorientation.OrientationMental status testing is done to check a person's thinking ability and to determine if any problems are getting better or worse. It is also called n...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Depending on the symptoms and severity of the disease, monitoring and help with personal hygiene and self-care may be needed. Eventually, there may be a need for 24-hour care and monitoring at home or in a special facility. Family counseling can help the person cope with the changes needed for home care.Monitoring and helpDementia is a loss of cognitive function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Care may include:Adult protective services Community resources Homemakers Visiting nurses or aides Volunteer services People with FTD and their family may need to seek legal advice early in the course of the disorder. Advance care directive, power of attorney, and other legal actions can make it easier to make decisions regarding the care of the person with FTD.Advance care directive, power of attorn...When you are very ill or injured, you may not be able to make health care choices for yourself. If you are unable to speak for yourself, your health...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Support Groups You can ease the stress of FTD by joining a support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone. More information and support for people with FTD and their families can be found at:The Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration -- www.theaftd.org/get-involved/in-your-region/ Outlook (Prognosis) The disorder quickly and steadily becomes worse. The person becomes totally disabled early in the course of the disease.FTD commonly causes death within 8 to 10 years, usually from infection, or sometimes because body systems fail. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if mental function gets worse. Prevention There is no known prevention.Open ReferencesReferencesBang J, Spina S, Miller BL. Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet. 2015;386(10004):1672-1682. PMID: 26595641 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26595641/.Peterson R, Graff-Radford J. Alzheimer disease and other dementias. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 95.AllVideoImagesTogCentral nervous system and peripheral nervous system - illustration The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.Central nervous system and peripheral nervous systemillustrationBrain - illustration The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.BrainillustrationBrain and nervous system - illustration The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve cells deteriorated in number and facility, causing some lessening in function.Brain and nervous systemillustrationCentral nervous system and peripheral nervous system - illustration The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.Central nervous system and peripheral nervous systemillustrationBrain - illustration The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.BrainillustrationBrain and nervous system - illustration The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve cells deteriorated in number and facility, causing some lessening in function.Brain and nervous systemillustrationRelated Information Alzheimer disease(Condition)Insidious(Special Topic)Dementia(Condition)Alzheimer disease(In-Depth) Review Date: 2/4/2020 Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. 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