BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuMelanoma of the eyeMalignant melanoma - choroid; Malignant melanoma - eye; Eye tumor; Ocular melanomaMelanoma of the eye is cancer that occurs in various parts of the eye. Causes Melanoma is a very aggressive type of cancer that can spread rapidly. It usually is a type of skin cancer.MelanomaMelanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is also the rarest. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. Other common types o...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Melanoma of the eye can affect several parts of the eye, including the:Choroid ChoroidThe choroid is the layer of blood vessels and connective tissue between the white of the eye and retina (at the back of the eye). It is part of the ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Ciliary body Conjunctiva Eyelid Iris Orbit The choroid layer is the most likely site of melanoma in the eye. This is the layer of blood vessels and connective tissue between the white of the eye and retina (back of the eye).The cancer may only be in the eye. Or, it may spread (metastasize) to another location in the body, most commonly the liver. Melanoma can also begin on the skin or other organs in the body and spread to the eye.Melanoma is the most common type of eye tumor in adults. Even so, melanoma that starts in the eye is rare.Too much exposure to sunlight is an important risk factor for melanoma. People who have fair-skin and blue eyes are most affected. Symptoms Symptoms of melanoma of the eye may include any of the following:Bulging eyes Bulging eyesBulging eyes is the abnormal protrusion (bulging out) of one or both eyeballs.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Change in iris color Poor vision in one eye Poor visionThere are many types of eye problems and vision disturbances, such as: Halos Blurred vision (the loss of sharpness of vision and the inability to see...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Red, painful eye Painful eyePain in the eye may be described as a burning, throbbing, aching, or stabbing sensation in or around the eye. It may also feel like you have a forei...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Small defect on the iris or conjunctivaIrisThe iris is the colored part of the eye. It is located between the cornea and lens. The round, central opening of the iris is called the pupil. Ve...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article ConjunctivaThe conjunctiva is a thin membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the white part of the eyeball (the sclera). Inflammation of the co...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article In some cases, there may be no symptoms. Exams and Tests An eye examination with an ophthalmoscope may reveal a single round or oval lump (tumor) in the eye.OphthalmoscopeOphthalmoscopy is an examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina, optic disc, choroid, and blood vessels.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Tests that may be ordered include:Brain CT or MRI scan to look for spread (metastasis) to the brain Brain CTA head computed tomography (CT) scan uses many x-rays to create pictures of the head, including the skull, brain, eye sockets, and sinuses.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article MRIA head MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the brain and surrounding...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Eye ultrasound UltrasoundUltrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of organs and structures inside the body.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Skin biopsy if there is an affected area on the skinSkin biopsyA skin lesion biopsy is when a small amount of skin is removed so it can be examined. The skin is tested to look for skin conditions or diseases. A...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Treatment Small melanomas may be treated with:Surgery Laser Radiation therapy (such as Gamma Knife, CyberKnife, brachytherapy) Radiation therapyRadiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Gamma KnifeStereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-power energy on a small area of the body. Despite its name, radiosur...Read Article Now Book Mark Article CyberKnifeStereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-power energy on a small area of the body. Despite its name, radiosu...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Surgery to remove the eye (enucleation) may be needed.Other treatments that may be used include:Chemotherapy, if the cancer has spread beyond the eye ChemotherapyThe term chemotherapy is used to describe cancer-killing drugs. Chemotherapy may be used to:Cure the cancer Shrink the cancerPrevent the cancer from...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Immunotherapy, which uses medicines to help your immune system fight the melanoma ImmunotherapyImmunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's infection-fighting system (immune system). It uses substances made by the body...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.Cancer support groupThe following organizations are good resources for information on cancer:American Cancer Society -- www. cancer. orgAmerican Childhood Cancer Organiz...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome for melanoma of the eye depends on the size of the cancer when it is diagnosed. Most people survive at least 5 years from the time of diagnosis if the cancer has not spread outside the eye.If the cancer has spread outside the eye, the chance of long-term survival is much lower. Possible Complications Problems that may develop due to melanoma of the eye include:Distortion or loss of vision Retinal detachment Retinal detachmentRetinal detachment is a separation of the light-sensitive membrane (retina) in the back of the eye from its supporting layers.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Spread of the tumor to other areas of the body When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider for an appointment if you have symptoms of melanoma of the eye. Prevention The most important way to prevent melanoma of the eye is to protect the eyes from sunlight, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., when the sun's rays are most intense. Wear sunglasses that have ultraviolet protection.A yearly eye exam is recommended.Open ReferencesReferencesAugsburger JJ, Corrêa ZM, Berry JL. Malignant intraocular neoplasms. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 8.1.National Cancer Institute website. Intraocular (uveal) melanoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq. Updated February 25, 2022. Accessed May 18, 2022.Seddon JM, McCannel TA. Epidemiology of posterior uveal melanoma. In: Schachat AP, Sadda SVR, Hinton DR, Wilkinson CP, Wiedemann P, eds. Ryan's Retina. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 143.Shields CL, Shields JA. Overview of management of posterior uveal melanoma. In: Schachat AP, Sadda SVR, Hinton DR, Wilkinson CP, Wiedemann P, eds. Ryan's Retina. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 147.AllVideoImagesTogRetina - illustration The retina is the internal layer of the eye that receives and transmits focused images. The retina is normally red due to its rich blood supply.RetinaillustrationRetina - illustration The retina is the internal layer of the eye that receives and transmits focused images. The retina is normally red due to its rich blood supply.Retinaillustration Tests for Melanoma of the eye Eye and orbit ultrasoundRelated Information Tumor(Condition)Choroid(Special Topic)Melanoma(Condition)Retinal detachment(Condition)Proton therapy(Special Topic)Melanoma and other skin cancers(In-Depth) Review Date: 7/19/2021 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 05/18/2022. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. 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