BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuBasal ganglia dysfunctionExtrapyramidal syndrome; Antipsychotics - extrapyramidalBasal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. Causes No audio descriptionWith audio descriptionRelated video goes here for no-HTML5 browsersRelated video goes here for no-HTML5 browsersConditions that cause injury to the brain can damage the basal ganglia. Such conditions include:Carbon monoxide poisoning Drug overdose Head injury Infection Liver disease Metabolic problems MetabolicMetabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as:BreathingCirculating bloodControlling bo...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Multiple sclerosis (MS) Multiple sclerosisMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).Read Article Now Book Mark Article Poisoning with copper, manganese, or other heavy metals Stroke Tumors A common cause of these findings is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia.Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. They include:Dystonia (muscle tone problems) DystoniaUncontrolled or slow movement is a problem with muscle tone, usually in the large muscle groups. The problem leads to slow, uncontrollable jerky mov...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Huntington disease (disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate) Huntington diseaseHuntington disease (HD) is a genetic disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate. The disease is passed do...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Multiple system atrophy (widespread nervous system disorder) Multiple system atrophyMultiple system atrophy- parkinsonian type (MSA-P) is a rare condition that causes symptoms similar to Parkinson disease. However, people with MSA-P...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Parkinson disease Parkinson diseaseParkinson disease results from certain brain cells dying. These cells help control movement and coordination. The disease leads to shaking (tremors...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Progressive supranuclear palsy (movement disorder from damage to certain nerve cells in the brain) Progressive supranuclear palsyProgressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder that occurs from damage to certain nerve cells in the brain.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Wilson disease (disorder causing too much copper in the body's tissues) Wilson diseaseWilson disease is an inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues. The excess copper damages the liver and nervous sys...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Symptoms Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is called parkinsonism. A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area of the brain is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes.In general, symptoms vary and may include:Movement changes, such as involuntary or slowed movements Increased muscle tone Muscle spasms and muscle rigidity Problems finding words Tremor Uncontrollable, repeated movements, speech, or cries (tics) Walking difficulty Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the symptoms and medical history.Blood and imaging tests may be needed. These may include:CT and MRI of the head Genetic testing Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to look at the blood vessels in the neck and brain Positron emission tomography (PET) to look at the metabolism of the brain Blood tests to check blood sugar, thyroid function, liver function, and iron and copper levels Treatment Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder. Outlook (Prognosis) How well a person does depends on the cause of the dysfunction. Some causes are reversible, while others require lifelong treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if you have any abnormal or involuntary movements, falls without known reason, or if you or others notice that you are shaky or slow.Open ReferencesReferencesJankovic J. Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 96.Okun MS, Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 382.Vestal E, Rusher A, Ikeda K, Melnick M. Disorders of the basal nuclei. In: Lazaro RT, Reina-Guerra SG, Quiben MU, eds. Umphred's Neurological Rehabilitation. 7th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2020:chap 18.AllVideoImagesTogRelated Information Parkinson disease(Condition)Huntington disease(Condition)Progressive supranuclear palsy(Condition)Multiple system atrophy - parkinsonian type(Condition)Wilson disease(Condition)Movement - uncontrolled or slow(Symptoms)Multiple sclerosis(Condition)Parkinson disease(In-Depth)Multiple sclerosis(In-Depth) Review Date: 6/23/2020 Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. 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