BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuParathyroid adenomaHyperparathyroidism - parathyroid adenoma; Overactive parathyroid gland - parathyroid adenomaA parathyroid adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland. Causes The parathyroid glands in the neck help control calcium use and removal by the body. They do this by producing parathyroid hormone, or PTH. PTH helps control calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels in the blood and is important for healthy bones.Parathyroid adenomas are common. Most parathyroid adenomas do not have an identified cause. Sometimes a genetic problem is the cause. This is more common if the diagnosis is made when you are young.Conditions that stimulate the parathyroid glands to get bigger can also cause an adenoma. These include:Genetic disorders Taking the drug lithium Chronic kidney diseaseWomen over age 60 have the highest risk for developing this condition. Radiation to the head or neck also increases the risk. Symptoms Many people have no symptoms. The condition is often discovered when blood tests are done for another medical reason.Parathyroid adenomas are the most common cause of hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid glands), which leads to an increased blood calcium level. Symptoms may include any of the following:Confusion Constipation Lack of energy (lethargy) LethargyFatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Muscle pain Nausea or decreased appetite Urinating more often at night Weak bones or fractures Exams and Tests Blood tests may be done to check levels of:PTH PTHThe PTH test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. PTH stands for parathyroid hormone. It is a protein hormone released by the par...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Calcium CalciumThe calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blo...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Phosphorus PhosphorusThe phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Vitamin DVitamin DThe 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. Vitamin D helps control calcium and phosphate l...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article A 24-hour urine test may be done to check for increased calcium in the urine.Other tests include:Bone density exam Bone density examA bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone. This test helps your health care...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Kidney ultrasound or CT scan (may show kidney stones or calcification) Kidney x-rays (may show kidney stones) MRI MRIA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the body. It does not us...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Neck ultrasound Sestamibi neck scan (to identify the location of the parathyroid adenoma) Treatment Surgery is the most common treatment, and it often cures the condition. But, some people choose to only have regular checkups with their health care provider if the condition is mild.To help improve the condition, your provider may ask you to stop taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. Women who have gone through menopause may want to discuss treatment with estrogen. Outlook (Prognosis) When treated, outlook is generally good. Possible Complications Osteoporosis and the increased risk for bone fractures is the most common concern.OsteoporosisOsteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break (fracture).ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Other complications are less common, but may include:Nephrocalcinosis (calcium deposits in the kidneys that can reduce kidney function) NephrocalcinosisNephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. It is common in premature babies.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Osteitis fibrosa cystica (softened, weak areas in the bones)Osteitis fibrosa cysticaOsteitis fibrosa is a complication of hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which certain bones become abnormally weak and deformed.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Complications from surgery include: Damage to a nerve that controls your voice Damage to the parathyroid glands, which causes hypoparathyroidism (lack of enough parathyroid hormone) and low calcium levelHypoparathyroidismHypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if you have symptoms of this condition.Open ReferencesReferencesReid LM, Kamani D, Randolph GW. Management of parathyroid disorders. In: Flint PW, Francis HW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 123.Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP. Primary hyperparathyroidism. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63.Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 232.AllVideoImagesTogEndocrine glands - illustration Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the rate of metabolism in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).Endocrine glandsillustrationParathyroid glands - illustration The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within the blood and bone by maintaining a balance between the mineral levels in the blood and the bone. Parathyroid glandsillustrationEndocrine glands - illustration Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the rate of metabolism in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).Endocrine glandsillustrationParathyroid glands - illustration The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within the blood and bone by maintaining a balance between the mineral levels in the blood and the bone. Parathyroid glandsillustrationRelated Information Hyperparathyroidism(Condition)Hypercalcemia(Condition)Nephrocalcinosis(Condition)Osteitis fibrosa(Condition)Osteoporosis(Condition)Osteoporosis(In-Depth) Review Date: 5/13/2020 Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, board certified in Metabolism/Endocrinology, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.