BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuHyperparathyroidismParathyroid-related hypercalcemia; Osteoporosis - hyperparathyroidism; Bone thinning - hyperparathyroidism; Osteopenia - hyperparathyroidism; High calcium level - hyperparathyroidism; Chronic kidney disease - hyperparathyroidism; Kidney failure - hyperparathyroidism; Overactive parathyroid; Vitamin D deficiency - hyperparathyroidismHyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). Causes There are 4 tiny parathyroid glands in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland.The parathyroid glands help control calcium use and removal by the body. They do this by producing parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH helps control calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels in the blood and bone.When calcium level is too low, the body responds by making more PTH. This causes the calcium level in the blood to rise.When one or more of the parathyroid glands grow larger, it leads to too much PTH. Most often, the cause is a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands (parathyroid adenoma). These benign tumors are common and happen without a known cause.Benign tumor of the parathyroid glandsA parathyroid adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached t...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article The disease is most common in people over age 60, but it can also occur in younger adults. Hyperparathyroidism in childhood is very unusual. Women are more likely to be affected than men. Radiation to the head and neck increases the risk. Some genetic syndromes (multiple endocrine neoplasia I) make it more likely to have hyperparathyroidism. Multiple endocrine neoplasia IMultiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is a disease in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or forms a tumor. It is passed do...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article In very rare cases, the disease is caused by parathyroid cancer.Medical conditions that cause low blood calcium or increased phosphate can also lead to hyperparathyroidism. Common conditions include:Conditions that make it hard for the body to remove phosphate Kidney failure Kidney failureEnd-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term (chronic) kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Not enough calcium in the diet Too much calcium lost in the urine Vitamin D disorders (may occur in children who do not eat a variety of foods, and in older adults who do not get enough sunlight on their skin or who have poor absorption of vitamin D from food such as after bariatric surgery) Problems absorbing nutrients from food Symptoms Hyperparathyroidism is often diagnosed by common blood tests before symptoms occur.Symptoms are mostly caused by damage to organs from high calcium level in the blood, or by the loss of calcium from the bones. Symptoms can include:Bone pain or tenderness Bone pain or tendernessBone pain or tenderness is aching or other discomfort in one or more bones.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Depression and forgetfulness DepressionDepression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for shor...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Feeling tired, ill, and weak Fragile bones of the limbs and spine that can break easily Increased amount of urine produced and needing to urinate more often Kidney stones Kidney stonesA kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Nausea and loss of appetite Exams and Tests The health care provider will do a physical exam and ask about symptoms.Tests that may be done include:PTH blood test PTH blood testThe PTH test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. PTH stands for parathyroid hormone. It is a protein hormone released by the par...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Calcium blood test Calcium blood testThe calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blo...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphataseAlkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blo...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Phosphorus PhosphorusThe phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article 24-hour urine test24-hour urine testThe urine 24-hour volume test measures the amount of urine produced in a day. The amounts of creatinine, protein, and other chemicals released into ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bone x-rays and bone mineral density (DXA) tests can help detect bone loss, fractures, or bone softening.X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scans of the kidneys or urinary tract may show calcium deposits or a blockage.Ultrasound or a nuclear medicine scan of the neck (sestamibi) is used to see if a benign tumor (adenoma) in a parathyroid gland is causing hyperparathyroidism. Treatment If you have a mildly increased calcium level and don't have symptoms, you may choose to have regular checkups or get treated.If you decide to have treatment, it may include:Drinking more fluids to prevent kidney stones from forming Exercising Not taking a type of water pill called thiazide diuretic Estrogen for women who have gone through menopause Having surgery to remove the overactive glandsIf you have symptoms or your calcium level is very high, you may need surgery to remove the parathyroid gland that is overproducing the hormone.If you have hyperparathyroidism from a medical condition, your provider may prescribe vitamin D, if you have a low vitamin D level.If hyperparathyroidism is caused by kidney failure, treatment may include:Extra calcium and vitamin D Avoiding phosphate in the diet The medicine cinacalcet (Sensipar) Dialysis or a kidney transplant Parathyroid surgery, if the parathyroid level becomes uncontrollably high Outlook (Prognosis) Outlook depends on the cause of hyperparathyroidism. Possible Complications Long-term problems that can occur when hyperparathyroidism is not well controlled include:Bones become weak, deformed, or can break High blood pressure and heart disease Kidney stones Long-term kidney diseaseParathyroid gland surgery can result in hypoparathyroidism and damage to the nerves that control the vocal cords.HypoparathyroidismHypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Open ReferencesReferencesHollenberg A, Wiersinga WM. Hyperthyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 12.Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 232.AllVideoImagesTogParathyroid glands - illustration The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within the blood and bone by maintaining a balance between the mineral levels in the blood and the bone. Parathyroid glandsillustrationParathyroid glands - illustration The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within the blood and bone by maintaining a balance between the mineral levels in the blood and the bone. Parathyroid glandsillustrationRelated Information Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test(Medical Test)Renal(Special Topic)Central nervous system(Special Topic)Urinary tract infection - adults(Condition)Kidney stones(Condition)Peptic ulcer(Condition)Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis(Condition)Urinary tract infection(In-Depth)Kidney stones(In-Depth)Peptic ulcers(In-Depth) Review Date: 5/13/2020 Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, board certified in Metabolism/Endocrinology, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. 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