BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuECHO virus Nonpolio enterovirus infection; Echovirus infectionEnteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead to infections in different parts of the body, and skin rashes. Causes Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these are called enteroviruses. These infections are common. In the United States, they are most common in the summer and fall. You can catch the virus if you come into contact with stool contaminated by the virus, and possibly by breathing in air particles from an infected person.Serious infections with ECHO viruses are much less common but can be significant. For example, some cases of viral meningitis (inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) are caused by an ECHO virus. Symptoms Symptoms depend on the site of infection and may include:Croup (breathing difficulty and harsh cough) CroupCroup is an infection of the upper airways that causes breathing difficulty and a "barking" cough. Croup is due to swelling around the vocal cords. ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Mouth sores Skin rashes Sore throat Chest pain if the infection affects the heart muscle or sac-like covering around the heart (pericarditis) Heart muscleMyocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle. The condition is called pediatric myocarditis when it occurs in children.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article PericarditisPericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Severe headache, mental status changes, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, if the infection affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) MeningitisMeningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Exams and Tests Because the illness is often mild and has no specific treatment, testing for echovirus is often not done.If needed, ECHO virus can be identified from:Rectal culture Rectal cultureRectal culture is a lab test to identify bacteria and other germs in the rectum that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Spinal fluid culture or PCR Spinal fluid cultureA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spi...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Stool culture Stool cultureA fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Throat cultureThroat cultureA throat swab culture is a laboratory test that is done to identify germs that may cause infection in the throat. It is most often used to diagnose ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Treatment ECHO virus infections almost always clear up on their own. No specific medicines are available to fight the virus. Immune system treatment called IVIG may help people with severe ECHO virus infections who have a weakened immune system. Antibiotics are not effective against this virus, or any other virus. Outlook (Prognosis) People who have the less severe types of illness should recover completely without treatment. Infections of organs such as the heart may cause severe disease and can be deadly. Possible Complications Complications vary with the site and type of infection. Heart infections may be deadly, while most other types of infection improve on their own. When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider if you have any of the symptoms listed above. Prevention No specific preventive measures are available for ECHO virus infections other than hand-washing, especially when you are in contact with sick people. Currently, no vaccines are available.Open ReferencesReferencesRomero JR. Enteroviruses. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 355.Romero JR. Introduction to the human enteroviruses and parechoviruses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 170.AllVideoImagesTogECHO virus type 9 - exanthem - illustration Many viruses cause skin rashes (exanthem). This child was diagnosed with an ECHO virus infection. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)ECHO virus type 9 - exanthemillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. AntibodiesillustrationECHO virus type 9 - exanthem - illustration Many viruses cause skin rashes (exanthem). This child was diagnosed with an ECHO virus infection. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)ECHO virus type 9 - exanthemillustrationAntibodies - illustration Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens. AntibodiesillustrationRelated Information Rashes(Symptoms)Bacterial gastroenteritis(Condition) Review Date: 12/24/2020 Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. 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