BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuSchizotypal personality disorderPersonality disorder - schizotypalSchizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a mental condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and disturbances in thought patterns, appearance, and behavior. Causes The exact cause of SPD is unknown. Many factors may be involved:Genetic -- SPD seems to be more common among relatives. Studies have found that some gene defects are found more often in people with SPD. Psychologic -- A person's personality, ability to deal with stress, and handle relationships with others may contribute to SPD. Environmental -- Emotional trauma as a child and chronic stress may also play roles in developing SPD. Symptoms SPD should not be confused with schizophrenia. People with SPD can have odd beliefs and behaviors, but unlike people with schizophrenia, they are not disconnected from reality and usually DO NOT hallucinate. They also DO NOT have delusions.SchizophreniaSchizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it hard to tell the difference between what is real and not real. It also makes it hard to think clearl...Read Article Now Book Mark Article HallucinateHallucinations involve sensing things such as visions, sounds, or smells that seem real but are not. These things are created by the mind.Read Article Now Book Mark Article People with SPD may be very disturbed. They may also have unusual preoccupations and fears, such as fear of being monitored by government agencies.More commonly, people with this disorder behave oddly and have unusual beliefs (such as aliens). They cling to these beliefs so strongly that they have difficulty forming and keeping close relationships.People with SPD may also have depression. A second personality disorder, such as borderline personality disorder, is also common. Mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders are also common among people with SPD.Borderline personality disorderParanoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust and suspicion of others. The person ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Common signs of SPD include:Discomfort in social situations Inappropriate displays of feelings No close friends Odd behavior or appearance Odd beliefs, fantasies, or preoccupations Odd speech Exams and Tests SPD is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation. The health care provider will consider how long and how severe the person's symptoms are. Treatment Talk therapy is an important part of treatment. Social skills training can help some people cope with social situations. Medicines may also be a helpful addition if mood or anxiety disorders are also present. Outlook (Prognosis) SPD is usually a long-term (chronic) illness. Outcome of treatment varies based on the severity of the disorder. Possible Complications Complications may include:Poor social skills Lack of interpersonal relationships When to Contact a Medical Professional See your provider or a mental health professional if you or someone you know has symptoms of SPD. Prevention There is no known prevention. Awareness of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis.Open ReferencesReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association website. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;655-659.Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA, Hopwood CJ. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 39.Rosell DR, Futterman SE, McMaster A, Siever LJ. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16(7):452. PMID: 24828284 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24828284/.AllVideoImagesTogRelated Information Schizophrenia(Condition)Schizophrenia(In-Depth) Review Date: 11/7/2020 Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.