BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuPantothenic acid and biotinPantothenic acid; Pantethine; Vitamin B5; Vitamin B7Pantothenic acid (B5) and biotin (B7) are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use the entire vitamin, the extra amount leaves the body through the urine. The body keeps a small reserve of these vitamins. They have to be taken on a regular basis to maintain the reserve. Function Pantothenic acid and biotin are needed for growth. They help the body break down and use food. This is called metabolism. They are both required for making fatty acids.MetabolismMetabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as:BreathingCirculating bloodControlling bo...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Pantothenic acid also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol. In addition, it is used in the conversion of pyruvate, a substance that is essential to many metabolic pathways in the body. Food Sources Almost all plant- and animal-based foods contain pantothenic acid in varying amounts, though food processing can cause a significant loss.Pantothenic acid is found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including the following:Animal proteins Avocado Broccoli, kale, and other vegetables in the cabbage family Eggs Legumes and lentils Milk Mushrooms Organ meats Poultry White and sweet potatoes Whole-grain cereals Yeast Biotin is found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including:Cereal Chocolate Egg yolk Legumes Milk Nuts Organ meats (liver, kidney) Pork Yeast Side Effects Lack of pantothenic acid is very rare, but can cause a tingling feeling in the feet (paresthesia). Lack of biotin may lead to muscle pain, dermatitis, or glossitis (swelling of the tongue). Signs of biotin deficiency include skin rashes, hair loss, and brittle nails.Large doses of pantothenic acid do not cause symptoms, other than (possibly) diarrhea. There are no known toxic symptoms from biotin.DiarrheaDiarrhea is when you pass loose or watery stool.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Recommendations REFERENCE INTAKESRecommendations for pantothenic acid and biotin, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. DRI is a term for a set of reference intakes that are used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake that is enough to meet the nutrient needs of nearly all (97% to 98%) healthy people. Adequate Intake (AI): established when there is not enough evidence to develop an RDA. It is set at a level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid:Age 0 to 6 months: 1.7* milligrams per day (mg/day) Age 7 to 12 months: 1.8* mg/day Age 1 to 3 years: 2* mg/day Age 4 to 8 years: 3* mg/day Age 9 to 13 years: 4* mg/day Age 14 and older: 5* mg/day 6 mg/day during pregnancy Lactation: 7 mg/day*Adequate Intake (AI)Dietary Reference Intakes for biotin:Age 0 to 6 months: 5* micrograms per day (mcg/day) Age 7 to 12 months: 6* mcg/day Age 1 to 3 years: 8* mcg/day Age 4 to 8 years: 12* mcg/day Age 9 to 13 years: 20* mcg/day Age 14 to 18 years: 25* mcg/day 19 and older: 30* mcg/day (including women who are pregnant) Lactating women: 35* mcg/day*Adequate Intake (AI)The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods.Specific recommendations depend on age, sex, and other factors (such as pregnancy). Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need higher amounts. Ask your health care provider which amount is best for you.Open ReferencesReferencesMarkell M, Siddiqi HA. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 27.Mason JB, Booth SL. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 205. AllVideoImagesTogRelated Information Metabolism(Special Topic)Protein in diet(Nutrition)Carbohydrates(Nutrition)Cholesterol(In-Depth) Review Date: 3/11/2021 Reviewed By: Meagan Bridges, RD, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 09/29/2021. 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