BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuBone marrow transplantTransplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical cord blood transplant; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow transplant; Leukemia - bone marrow transplant; Lymphoma - bone marrow transplant; Multiple myeloma - bone marrow transplantA bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside your bones. The bone marrow produces blood cells. Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all of your different blood cells. Description Before the transplant, chemotherapy, radiation, or both may be given. This may be done in two ways:ChemotherapyThe term chemotherapy is used to describe cancer-killing drugs. Chemotherapy may be used to:Cure the cancer Shrink the cancerPrevent the cancer from...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article RadiationRadiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Ablative (myeloablative) treatment -- High-dose chemotherapy, radiation, or both are given to kill any cancer cells. This also kills all healthy bone marrow that remains, and allows new stem cells to grow in the bone marrow. Reduced intensity treatment, also called a mini transplant -- Lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation are given before a transplant. This allows older people, and those with other health problems to have a transplant. There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:Autologous bone marrow transplant -- The term auto means self. Stem cells are removed from you before you receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored in a freezer. After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, your stems cells are put back in your body to make normal blood cells. This is called a rescue transplant. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant -- The term allo means other. Stem cells are removed from another person, called a donor. Most times, the donor's genes must at least partly match your genes. Special tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches. Donors who are not related to you, yet still match, may be found through national bone marrow registries. Umbilical cord blood transplant -- This is a type of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby's umbilical cord right after birth. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature so there is less of a need for perfect matching. Due to the smaller number of stem cells, blood counts take much longer to recover. A stem cell transplant is usually done after chemotherapy and radiation is complete. The stem cells are delivered into your bloodstream, usually through a tube called a central venous catheter. The process is similar to getting a blood transfusion. The stem cells travel through the blood into the bone marrow. Most times, no surgery is needed.Donor stem cells can be collected in two ways:Bone marrow harvest -- This minor surgery is done under general anesthesia. This means the donor will be asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The bone marrow is removed from the back of both hip bones. The amount of marrow removed depends on the weight of the person who is receiving it. General anesthesiaGeneral anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not feel pain during surgery. After you receive the...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Leukapheresis -- First, the donor is given several days of shots to help stem cells move from the bone marrow into the blood. During leukapheresis, blood is removed from the donor through an IV line. The part of white blood cells that contains stem cells is then separated in a machine and removed to be later given to the recipient. The red blood cells are returned to the donor. Why the Procedure is Performed A bone marrow transplant replaces bone marrow that is either not working properly or has been destroyed (ablated) by chemotherapy or radiation. Doctors believe that for many cancers, the donor's white blood cells may attack any remaining cancer cells, similar to when white cells attack bacteria or viruses when fighting an infection. Your health care provider may recommend a bone marrow transplant if you have: Certain cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplasia, or multiple myeloma. Multiple myelomaMultiple myeloma is a blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside most bone...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article A disease that affects the production of bone marrow cells, such as aplastic anemia, congenital neutropenia, severe immune system illnesses, sickle cell anemia, or thalassemia. Aplastic anemiaAplastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow does not make enough blood cells. Bone marrow is the soft, tissue in the center of bones tha...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article NeutropeniaNeutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood cells. These cells are called neutrophils. They help the body fight infection. This article...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell disease is a disorder passed down through families. The red blood cells that are normally shaped like a disk take on a sickle or crescen...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article ThalassemiaThalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form or inadequate amount of hemoglobin....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Risks A bone marrow transplant may cause the following symptoms:Chest pain Drop in blood pressure Fever, chills, flushing Funny taste in the mouth Headache Hives Nausea Pain Shortness of breath Possible complications of a bone marrow transplant depend on many things, including:Your age Your overall health How good of a match your donor was The type of bone marrow transplant you received (autologous, allogeneic, or umbilical cord blood) Complications may include:Anemia AnemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bleeding in the lungs, intestines, brain, and other areas of the body Cataracts CataractsA cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Clotting in the small veins of the liver Damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart Delayed growth in children who receive a bone marrow transplant Early menopause Graft failure, which means that the new cells do not settle into the body and start producing stem cells Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition in which the donor cells attack your own body Graft-versus-host diseaseGraft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication that can occur after certain stem cell or bone marrow transplants.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Infections, which can be very serious Inflammation and soreness in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, called mucositis Pain Stomach problems, including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting Before the Procedure Your provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. You will have many tests before treatment begins.Before transplant, you will have 1 or 2 tubes, called central venous catheters, inserted into a blood vessel in your neck or arms. This tube allows you to receive treatments, fluids, and sometimes nutrition. It is also used to draw blood.Your provider will likely discuss the emotional stress of having a bone marrow transplant. You may want to meet with a counselor. It is important to talk to your family and children to help them understand what to expect.You will need to make plans to help you prepare for the procedure and handle tasks after your transplant:Complete an advance care directive Advance care directiveWhen you are very ill or injured, you may not be able to make health care choices for yourself. If you are unable to speak for yourself, your health...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange for someone to help with household chores Confirm health insurance coverage Pay bills Arrange for care of your children Find housing for yourself or your family near the hospital, if needed After the Procedure A bone marrow transplant is usually done in a hospital or medical center that specializes in such treatment. Most of the time, you stay in a special bone marrow transplant unit in the center. This is to limit your chance of getting an infection.Depending on the treatment and where it is done, all or part of an autologous or allogeneic transplant may be done as an outpatient. This means you do not have to stay in the hospital overnight.How long you stay in the hospital depends on: Whether you developed any complications related to the transplant The type of transplant Your medical center's procedures While you are in the hospital:The health care team will closely monitor your blood count and vital signs. You will receive medicines to prevent GVHD and prevent or treat infections, including antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral medicine. You will likely need many blood transfusions. You will be fed through a vein (IV) until you can eat by mouth, and stomach side effects and mouth sores have gone away. After you leave the hospital, be sure to follow instructions on how to care for yourself at home. Care for yourself at homeYou have had a bone marrow transplant. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Outlook (Prognosis) How well you do after the transplant depends on:The type of bone marrow transplant How well the donor's cells match yours What type of cancer or illness you have Your age and overall health The type and dosage of chemotherapy or radiation therapy you had before your transplant Any complications you may have A bone marrow transplant may completely or partially cure your illness. If the transplant is a success, you can go back to most of your normal activities as soon as you feel well enough. Usually it takes up to 1 year to recover fully, depending on what complications occur.Complications or failure of the bone marrow transplant can lead to death.Open ReferencesReferencesAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology website. What is a bone marrow transplant (stem cell transplant)? www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/bone-marrowstem-cell-transplantation/what-bone-marrow-transplant-stem-cell-transplant. Updated July 2020. Accessed June 3, 2021.Heslop HE. Overview and choice of donor of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 103.Im A, Pavletic SZ. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Kastan MB, Doroshow JH, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 28.AllVideoImagesTogBone marrow aspiration - illustration A small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy, or the presence of some storage diseases, in which abnormal metabolic products are stored in certain bone marrow cells.Bone marrow aspirationillustrationFormed elements of blood - illustration Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and returns waste and carbon dioxide. Blood distributes nearly everything that is carried from one area in the body to another place within the body. For example, blood transports hormones from endocrine organs to their target organs and tissues. Blood helps maintain body temperature and normal pH levels in body tissues. The protective functions of blood include clot formation and the prevention of infection.Formed elements of bloodillustrationBone marrow from hip - illustration Bone marrow may be harvested from the hip (iliac bone) to serve as bone grafts elsewhere in the body.Bone marrow from hipillustrationBone-marrow transplant - seriesPresentation Bone marrow aspiration - illustration A small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy, or the presence of some storage diseases, in which abnormal metabolic products are stored in certain bone marrow cells.Bone marrow aspirationillustrationFormed elements of blood - illustration Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and returns waste and carbon dioxide. Blood distributes nearly everything that is carried from one area in the body to another place within the body. For example, blood transports hormones from endocrine organs to their target organs and tissues. Blood helps maintain body temperature and normal pH levels in body tissues. The protective functions of blood include clot formation and the prevention of infection.Formed elements of bloodillustrationBone marrow from hip - illustration Bone marrow may be harvested from the hip (iliac bone) to serve as bone grafts elsewhere in the body.Bone marrow from hipillustration Bone-marrow transplant - seriesPresentation Self Care Bleeding during cancer treatmentRelated Information Histocompatibility antigen test(Medical Test)Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)(Condition)Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)(Condition)Acute myeloid leukemia - adult(Condition)Aplastic anemia(Condition)Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)(Condition)Hodgkin lymphoma(Condition)Non-Hodgkin lymphoma(Condition)Multiple myeloma(Condition)Bone marrow transplant - discharge(Discharge)Bleeding during cancer treatment(Self-Care)Oral mucositis - self-care(Self-Care)Dry mouth during cancer treatment(Self-Care)Eating extra calories when sick - children(Self-Care)Eating extra calories when sick - adults(Self-Care)Drinking water safely during cancer treatment(Self-Care)Safe eating during cancer treatment(Self-Care)Central venous catheter - dressing change(Self-Care)Central venous catheter - flushing (Self-Care)Hodgkin disease(In-Depth)Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(In-Depth)Acute lymphocytic leukemia(In-Depth) Review Date: 2/6/2020 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. 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