BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuHemoglobin electrophoresisHb electrophoresis; Hgb electrophoresis; Electrophoresis - hemoglobin; Thalassemia - electrophoresis; Sickle cell - electrophoresis; Hemoglobinopathy - electrophoresisHemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. It is present inside the red blood cells. Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of this protein in the blood.HemoglobinHemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The hemoglobin test measures how much hemoglobin is in your blood.Read Article Now Book Mark Article How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed.Blood sampleVenipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.Read Article Now Book Mark Article In the lab, the technician places the blood sample on special paper and applies an electric current. The hemoglobins move on the paper and form bands that show the amount of each type of hemoglobin. How to Prepare for the Test No special preparation is necessary for this test. How the Test will Feel When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away. Why the Test is Performed You may have this test if your health care provider suspects that you have a disorder caused by abnormal forms of hemoglobin (hemoglobinopathy).HemoglobinopathyHemoglobinopathy is a group of disorders in which there is abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin molecule. It is passed down through fa...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Many different types of hemoglobin (Hb) exist. The most common ones are HbA, HbA2, HbE, HbF, HbS, HbC, HbH, and HbM. Healthy adults only have significant levels of HbA and HbA2.Some people may also have small amounts of HbF. This is the main type of hemoglobin in an unborn baby's body. Certain diseases are associated with high HbF levels (when HbF is more than 2% of the total hemoglobin).HbS is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with sickle cell anemia. In people with this condition, the red blood cells sometimes have a crescent or sickle shape. These cells easily break down or can block small blood vessels.Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell disease is a disorder passed down through families. The red blood cells that are normally shaped like a disk take on a sickle or crescen...Read Article Now Book Mark Article HbC is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with excessive red blood cell destruction and hemolytic anemia. The symptoms are much milder than they are in sickle cell anemia.Hemolytic anemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Normally, red ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Other, less common, abnormal Hb molecules cause other types of anemia.AnemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...Read Article Now Book Mark Article Normal Results In adults, these are normal percentages of different hemoglobin molecules:HbA: 95% to 98% (0.95 to 0.98) HbA2: 2% to 3% (0.02 to 0.03) HbE: Absent HbF: 0.8% to 2% (0.008 to 0.02) HbS: Absent HbC: AbsentIn infants and children, these are normal percentage of HbF molecules:HbF (newborn): 50% to 80% (0.5 to 0.8) HbF (6 months): 8% HbF (over 6 months): 1% to 2%Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Significant levels of abnormal hemoglobins may indicate:Hemoglobin C disease Inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal amount of some hemoglobin molecules (thalassemia) ThalassemiaThalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form or inadequate amount of hemoglobin....Read Article Now Book Mark Article Rare hemoglobinopathy Sickle cell anemiaYou may have false normal or abnormal results if you have had a blood transfusion within 12 weeks of this test. Risks There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood buildup under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)Open ReferencesReferencesCalihan J. Hematology. In: Kleinman K, Mcdaniel L, Molloy M, eds. The Harriet Lane Handbook. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 14.Elghetany MT, Banki K. Erythrocytic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 33.Means RT. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 149.AllVideoImagesTog Tests for Hemoglobin electrophoresis Hemoglobin electrophoresisRelated Information Hemoglobin(Medical Test)A1C test(Medical Test)Sickle cell disease(Condition)Hemolytic anemia(Condition)Anemia(Condition)Thalassemia(Condition)Sickle cell disease(In-Depth)Anemia(In-Depth) Review Date: 1/9/2022 Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. 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