BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuBone marrow aspirationIliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of this tissue in liquid form for examination.Bone marrow aspiration is not the same as bone marrow biopsy. A biopsy removes a core of bone tissue for examination.Bone marrow biopsyA bone marrow biopsy is the removal of marrow from inside bone. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is foun...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article How the Test is Performed Bone marrow aspiration may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The bone marrow is removed from your pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, another bone is selected.Marrow is removed in the following steps:If needed, you are given medicine to help you relax. The provider cleans the skin and injects numbing medicine into the area and surface of the bone. A special needle is inserted into the bone. The needle has a tube attached to it, which creates suction. A small sample of bone marrow fluid flows into the tube. The needle is removed. Pressure and then a bandage are applied to the skin.The bone marrow fluid is sent to a laboratory and examined under a microscope. How to Prepare for the Test Tell the provider:If you are allergic to any medicines If you are pregnant If you have bleeding problems What medicines you are taking How the Test will Feel You will feel a sting and slight burning sensation when the numbing medicine is applied. You may feel pressure as the needle is inserted into the bone, and a sharp and usually painful sucking sensation as the marrow is removed. This feeling lasts for only a few seconds. Why the Test is Performed Your doctor may order this test if you have abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells or platelets on a complete blood count. This test is used to diagnose:Anemia (some types) AnemiaAnemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Infections Leukemia Other blood cancers and disorders It may help determine whether cancers have spread or responded to treatment. Normal Results The bone marrow should contain the proper number and types of:Blood-forming cells Connective tissues Fat cells What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may be due to cancers of the bone marrow, including:Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphocytic leukemiaAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type of white blood cell called a lymphoblast. ALL occurs when the bone marrow prod...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) Acute myelogenous leukemiaAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cell...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemiaChronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells are found in the bone marrow and other p...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Chronic myelogenous leukemia Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all bloo...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Abnormal results may also be due to other causes, such as:Bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells (aplastic anemia) Bacterial or fungal infections that have spread throughout the body Cancer of the lymph tissue (Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) LymphomaHodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of lymph tissue. Lymph tissue is found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other sites.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article A bleeding disorder called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpuraImmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which the immune system destroys platelets, which are necessary for normal blood clot...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood cancer called (multiple myeloma) Multiple myelomaMultiple myeloma is a blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside most bone...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Disorder in which the bone marrow is replaced by scar tissue (myelofibrosis) MyelofibrosisMyelofibrosis is a disorder of the bone marrow in which the marrow is replaced by fibrous scar tissue.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Disorder in which not enough healthy blood cells are made (myelodysplastic syndrome; MDS) Abnormally low amount of platelets, which help blood to clot (primary thrombocytopenia) ThrombocytopeniaThrombocytopenia is any disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. Platelets are parts of the blood that help blood to clot. ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article White blood cell cancer called Waldenström macroglobulinemiaWaldenström macroglobulinemiaWaldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a cancer of the B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). WM is associated with the overproduction of protei...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Risks There may be some bleeding at the puncture site. More serious risks, such as serious bleeding or infection, are very rare.Open ReferencesReferencesBates I, Burthem J. Bone marrow biopsy. In: Bain BJ, Bates I, Laffan MA, eds. Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 7.Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Bone marrow aspiration analysis -- specimen (biopsy, bone marrow iron stain, iron stain, bone marrow). In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:241-244.Vajpayee N, Graham SS, Bem S. Basic examination of blood and bone marrow. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 30.AllVideoImagesTogBone marrow aspiration - illustration A small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy, or the presence of some storage diseases, in which abnormal metabolic products are stored in certain bone marrow cells.Bone marrow aspirationillustrationSternum - view of the outside (anterior) - illustration During a sternal tap, a thin needle is inserted into the sternum (shown here) to withdraw bone marrow.Sternum - view of the outside (anterior)illustrationBone marrow aspiration - illustration A small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy, or the presence of some storage diseases, in which abnormal metabolic products are stored in certain bone marrow cells.Bone marrow aspirationillustrationSternum - view of the outside (anterior) - illustration During a sternal tap, a thin needle is inserted into the sternum (shown here) to withdraw bone marrow.Sternum - view of the outside (anterior)illustration Tests for Bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow aspirationBone marrow biopsyBone marrow cultureRelated Information Anemia(Condition)Myelofibrosis(Condition)Granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Condition)Hodgkin lymphoma(Condition)Cancer(Condition)Thrombocytopenia(Condition)Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)(Condition)Acute myeloid leukemia - adult(Condition)Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia(Condition)Folate-deficiency anemia(Condition)Anemia(In-Depth)Hodgkin disease(In-Depth)Acute lymphocytic leukemia(In-Depth) Review Date: 5/27/2020 Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. 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