BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuExtracorporeal membrane oxygenationECMO; Heart-lung bypass - infants; Bypass - infants; Neonatal hypoxia - ECMO; PPHN - ECMO; Meconium aspiration - ECMO; MAS - ECMO Information Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream of a very ill baby. This system provides heart-lung bypass support outside of the baby's body. It may help support a child who is awaiting a heart or lung transplant.WHY IS ECMO USED?ECMO is used in infants who are sick due to breathing or heart problems. The purpose of ECMO is to provide enough oxygen to the baby while allowing time for the lungs and heart to rest or heal.The most common conditions that may require ECMO are:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) Birth defects of the heart Birth defects of the heartCyanotic heart disease refers to a group of many different heart defects that are present at birth (congenital). They result in a low blood oxygen l...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) MASMeconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) refers to breathing problems that a newborn baby may have when: There are no other causes, andThe baby has passed ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Severe pneumonia PneumoniaPneumonia is a breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Severe air leak problems Severe high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs (PPHN)It may also be used during the recovery period after heart surgery.HOW IS A BABY PLACED ON ECMO?Starting ECMO requires a large team of caregivers to stabilize the baby, as well as the careful set-up and priming of the ECMO pump with fluid and blood. Surgery is performed to attach the ECMO pump to the baby through catheters that are placed into large blood vessels in the baby's neck or groin.WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF ECMO?Because babies who are considered for ECMO are already very sick, they are at high risk for long-term problems, including death. Once the baby is placed on ECMO, additional risks include:Bleeding Blood clot formation Infection Transfusion problems Rarely, the pump can have mechanical problems (tube breaks, pump stops), which can harm the baby.However, most babies who need ECMO would probably die if it were not used.Open ReferencesReferencesAhlfeld SK. Respiratory tract disorders. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 122.Patroniti N, Grasselli G, Zanella A, Pesenti A. Extracorporeal support of gas exchange. In: Broaddus VC, Ernst JD, King TE, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 138.Stork EK. Therapy for cardiorespiratory failure in the neonate. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA; Elsevier; 2020:chap 70.AllVideoImagesTogECMO - illustration ECMO stands for Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation. ECMO is used in infants who are extremely ill due to breathing or heart problems. The ECMO machine circulates blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream. This provides adequate oxygen to the baby while allowing time for the lungs and heart to rest or heal.ECMOillustrationECMO - illustration ECMO stands for Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation. ECMO is used in infants who are extremely ill due to breathing or heart problems. The ECMO machine circulates blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream. This provides adequate oxygen to the baby while allowing time for the lungs and heart to rest or heal.ECMOillustrationRelated Information Review Date: 2/24/2022 Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.