BACK TOTOP Browse A-ZSearchBrowse A-ZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0-9 E-mail FormEmail ResultsName:Email address:Recipients Name:Recipients address:Message: Print-FriendlyBookmarksbookmarks-menuPneumonia in children - community acquiredBronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. This type of pneumonia occurs in healthy children who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility.Pneumonia that affects people in health care facilities, such as hospitals, is often caused by germs that are harder to treat.People in health care facilitiesHospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that occurs during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia can be very severe. Sometimes, ...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Causes Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children.Ways your child can get CAP include:Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to the lungs. Your child may breathe some of these germs directly into the lungs. Your child breathes in food, liquids, or vomit from the mouth into her lungs.Breathes inPneumonia is inflammation (swelling) and infection of the lungs or large airways. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when food or liquid is breathed into th...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Risk factors that increase a child's chance of getting CAP include:Being younger than 6 months of age Being born prematurely Birth defects, such as cleft palate Nervous system problems, such as seizures or cerebral palsy Heart or lung disease present at birth Weak immune system (this can occur due to cancer treatment or disease such as HIV/AIDS) Recent surgery or trauma Symptoms Common symptoms of pneumonia in children include:Stuffed up or runny nose, headaches Loud cough Fever, which may be mild or high, with chills and sweating Rapid breathing, with flared nostrils and straining of the muscles between the ribs Wheezing Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when breathing deeply or coughing Low energy and malaise (not feeling well) MalaiseMalaise is a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or lack of well-being.Read Article Now Book Mark Article Vomiting or loss of appetite Symptoms common in children with more severe infections include:Blue lips and fingernails due to too little oxygen in the blood Confusion or very hard to arouse Exams and Tests The health care provider will listen to your child's chest with a stethoscope. The provider will listen for crackles or abnormal breath sounds. Tapping on the chest wall (percussion) helps the provider listen and feel for abnormal sounds.If pneumonia is suspected, the provider will likely order a chest x-ray.Other tests may include:Arterial blood gases to see if enough oxygen is getting into your child's blood from the lungs Arterial blood gasesBlood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the acidity (pH) of your blood.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Blood culture and sputum culture to look for the germ that may be causing the pneumonia Blood cultureA blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Sputum cultureRoutine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when y...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article CBC to check white blood cell count CBCA complete blood count (CBC) test measures the following:The number of red blood cells (RBC count)The number of white blood cells (WBC count)The tota...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Chest X-ray or CT scan of the chest CT scan of the chestA chest CT (computed tomography) scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the chest and upper abdomen....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Bronchoscopy -- a flexible tube with a lighted camera on the end passed down into the lungs (in rare cases) BronchoscopyBronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. It may also be used during the treatment of some lung conditions.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Removing fluid from the space between the outside lining of the lungs and the chest wall (in rare cases)Removing fluidThoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest....Read Article Now Book Mark Article Treatment The provider must first decide whether your child needs to be in the hospital.If treated in the hospital, your child will receive:Fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics through the veins or mouth Oxygen therapy Breathing treatments to help open up the airways Your child is more likely to be admitted to the hospital if they:Have another serious medical problem, including long-term (chronic) health issues such as cystic fibrosis or diabetes mellitus Have severe symptoms Are unable to eat or drink Are less than 3 to 6 months old Have pneumonia due to a harmful germ Have taken antibiotics at home, but isn't getting better If your child has CAP caused by bacteria, antibiotics will be given. Antibiotics are not given for pneumonia caused by a virus. This is because antibiotics do not kill viruses. Other medicines, such as antivirals, may be given if your child has the flu.Many children can be treated at home. If so, your child may need to take medicines such as antibiotics or antivirals.When giving antibiotics to your child:Make sure your child does not miss any doses. Make sure your child takes all the medicine as directed. Do not stop giving the medicine, even when your child starts feeling better. Do not give your child cough medicine or cold medicine unless your doctor says it is OK. Coughing helps the body get rid of mucus from the lungs.Other home care measures include:To bring mucus up from the lungs, tap your child's chest gently a few times a day. This can be done as your child is lying down. Have your child take a couple of deep breaths 2 or 3 times every hour. Deep breaths help open up your child's lungs. Make sure your child drinks plenty of liquids. Ask your provider how much your child should drink each day. Have your child get plenty of rest, including napping throughout the day if needed. Outlook (Prognosis) Most children improve in 7 to 10 days with treatment. Children who have severe pneumonia with complications may need treatment for 2 to 3 weeks. Children at risk for severe pneumonia include:Children whose immune system does not work well Children with lung or heart disease Possible Complications In some cases, more serious problems may develop, including:Life-threatening changes in the lungs that require a breathing machine (ventilator) Fluid around the lung, which can become infected Fluid around the lungA pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity.ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Can become infectedEmpyema is a collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Lung abscesses Bacteria in blood (bacteremia) The provider may order another x-ray. This is to make sure that your child's lungs are clear. It may take many weeks for the x-ray to clear up. Your child may feel better for a while before the x-rays are clear. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call the provider if your child has the following symptoms:Bad cough Difficulty breathing (wheezing, grunting, rapid breathing) Vomiting Loss of appetite Fever and chills Breathing (respiratory) symptoms that get worse Chest pain that gets worse when coughing or breathing in Signs of pneumonia and a weak immune system (such as with HIV or chemotherapy) Worsening symptoms after starting to get better Prevention Teach older children to wash their hands often:Before eating food After blowing their nose After going to the bathroom After playing with friends After coming in contact with people who are sickVaccines may help prevent some types of pneumonia. Be sure to get your child vaccinated with:Pneumococcal vaccine Pneumococcal vaccineAll content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv. htmlImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Flu vaccine Flu vaccineAll content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hc...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Pertussis vaccine and Hib vaccinePertussis vaccineAll content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) DTaP vaccine information statement (VIS) -- www....ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article Hib vaccineAll content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccin...ImageRead Article Now Book Mark Article When infants are too young to be immunized, parents or caregivers can get themselves immunized against vaccine-preventable pneumonia. Open ReferencesReferencesBradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, et al. Executive summary: the management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(7):617-630. PMID: 21890766 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21890766/.Kelly MS, Sandora TJ. Community-acquired pneumonia. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 428.Shah SS, Bradley JS. Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 22.AllVideoImagesTogPneumonia - illustration Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. The symptoms of pneumonia range from very mild to very severe, even fatal. The severity depends on the type of organism causing pneumonia as well as the age and underlying health of the individual.PneumoniaillustrationPneumonia - illustration Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. The symptoms of pneumonia range from very mild to very severe, even fatal. The severity depends on the type of organism causing pneumonia as well as the age and underlying health of the individual.PneumoniaillustrationA Closer Look Pneumonia(In-Depth)Immunizations(In-Depth)HIV and AIDS(Alt. Medicine)Gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn(In-Depth)Peptic ulcers(In-Depth)Related Information Review Date: 10/25/2020 Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- © 1997- All rights reserved. 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